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Due to its simplicity, a smile is easier to recognize than other emotions.

Due to its simplicity, a smile is easier to recognize than other emotions.

In addition, the pupils dilate, and this reaction, unlike the previous one is not subject to conscious control.

The fifth and last source of information – tears. They are also the result of the action of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). However, tears do not indicate all the emotions, but only some of them. They are usually associated with grief, sadness, relief, and sometimes – with happiness and unrestrained laughter. If a person has tears, it becomes easy to recognize the hidden feeling, because tears of joy are impossible without laughter or a smile.

ANS causes other external changes in the face: blush, pallor, sweat, which, like all other facial and bodily changes produced by ANS, are difficult to hide.

Blush is considered a sign of embarrassment, as well as feelings of shame and possibly guilt. The blush may indicate either that the liar is embarrassed and ashamed of his behavior, or that he is trying to hide the very fact of his embarrassment. The face also blushes with anger, and it is unknown how this blush differs from the paint of shame. It has been suggested that both reactions are caused by dilation of the peripheral blood vessels of the skin, but the crimson color of anger may differ from the blush of embarrassment in degree, location, and duration.

There are three other types of signs that can be judged on the falsity of facial expressions: asymmetry, duration and lateness of facial expressions.

With asymmetrical expression, the same emotion is manifested on one half of the face more strongly than on the other. It should not be confused with a one-sided expression in which only one half of the face moves. Such one-sided expressions are usually not caused by emotions. They are commonly used in emblems, such as winking or skeptical eyebrow raising. If one side of the face is distorted more than the other, it is a sure sign of false emotion.

Expressions that last more than ten seconds, or about five seconds, are more likely to be false. A long-held facial expression is most likely an emblem or a mockery. Analysis of facial expressions of deception would be incomplete if we do not consider one of the most important facial expressions – a smile. A smile is different from all other expressions – it expresses joy with only one muscle, while the expression of other emotions requires three to five. Due to its simplicity, a smile is easier to recognize than other emotions.

Pretended smiles are used to convince someone of positive, not really felt feelings. In this case, a person may feel almost nothing or even feel negative emotions, which will try to cover up with a feigned smile.

There are a number of features that distinguish the pretended, pretending to seem sincere, smile from really sincere (according to P. Ekman):

A fake smile is more asymmetrical than a sincere one. A sincere smile is not accompanied by the movement of muscles around the eyes.

The cover smile extends only to the lower part of the face and lower eyelids. Despite such a smile, the upper part of the face may show the right signs of emotions such as fear or sadness. But on the lower part of the face, a fake smile can not completely cover the manifestations of restrained emotions, instead, sometimes there is a mixture of elements of both emotions, and on the face there are some traces of mixed feelings.

In conclusion, the verifier should never rely on only one sign of deception, there must be several. Facial expressions should be accompanied by appropriate intonations, words or gestures.

Development of a research program and its implementation

The technique of “Supplementing the plot of the picture with a non-existent fragment” allows you to investigate the behavior of a human liar and identify signs that help recipients to detect lies.

As a stimulusAbout the material used pictures with fragments depicted on them, united by a common plot. Number of fragments – five, three of which are depicted in the picture as characters, the fourth is replaced by a “cloud” instead of the fifth depicts a “cloud” with the name of the character.

The group of subjects is divided into communicators (seven people – by the number of pictures) and recipients (the 123helpme.me rest). Immediately before the speech, each communicator is given a picture. Recipients are deprived of the opportunity to see what is depicted in the picture.

The communicator has the following task: to describe all the characters in a given order, replacing the “clouds” with fictional characters that would fit harmoniously into the overall plot of the picture, so that recipients do not guess which plot was invented.

The task of the recipients: to guess the characters invented by the communicator, to indicate the signs on the basis of which the conclusion was made, to record the results of their observations on the form.

The true objectives of the study were not reported to the subjects. The legend of the study was to test the ability to reproduce the situation in a shortage of information. This was done in order to direct the communicator’s efforts to achieve the integrity of the story and to minimize the possible misinformation of the communicator’s recipients about the fictional plot. The legend of the study, as well as the lack of time given for the speech (1-1.5 minutes) were aimed at achieving the most natural behavior of communicators.

The method allowed to select from the entire sample of those who were most effective in producing lies.

Author: Popovich Irina Vladimirovna Position: Deputy Director of the Verkhovna Rada, history teacher.

The material is posted as part of the Forum of pedagogical ideas “LESSON”

It is strictly forbidden to use this material on other Internet portals and in the media, as well as to distribute, translate, copy in any way without the written permission of the educational portal Osvita.ua.

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The material is posted as part of the Forum of pedagogical ideas “LESSON”

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